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Human development report 2004. Cultural liberty in today’s diverse world

United Nations Development Programme (2004)

Tipologia documento

Report

Editore

UNDP

Città

New York

Formato

PDF

Pagine

299

ISBN

0-19-522146-X

Lingua

EN

Abstract / Indice dei contenuti

OVERVIEW Cultural liberty in today’s diverse world 1
CHAPTER 1 Cultural liberty and human development 13
Participation and recognition 14
Freedoms, human rights and the role of diversity 15
Identity, community and freedom 16
Globalization, asymmetry and democracy 19
Conclusions 22
CHAPTER 2 Challenges for cultural liberty 27
Cultural liberty—an uncharted dimension of human development 28
Promoting cultural liberty requires recognizing differences in identity 36
Three myths surrounding cultural liberty and development 38
Today’s challenges for cultural liberty 44
CHAPTER 3 Building multicultural democracies 47
Resolving state dilemmas in recognizing cultural difference 47
Policies for ensuring the political participation of diverse cultural groups 50
Policies on religion and religious practice 54
Policies on customary law and legal pluralism 57
Policies on the use of multiple languages 60
Policies for redressing socio-economic exclusion 65
CHAPTER 4 Confronting movements for cultural domination 73
Movements for cultural domination—today’s challenges 74
Dilemmas for democracies—restrictive or accommodative measures? 77
CHAPTER 5 Globalization and cultural choice 85
Globalization and multiculturalism 88
Flows of investment and knowledge—including indigenous people in a globally integrated world 91
Flows of cultural goods—widening choices through creativity and diversity 96
Flows of people—multiple identities for global citizens 99
Notes 107
Bibliographic note 110
Bibliography 112
Contents
xi
SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS
Human rights embody the fundamental values of human civilizations Shirin Ebadi 23
Diversity—from divisive to inclusive Nelson Mandela 43
Recognition of linguistic diversity in Afghanistan’s Constitution Hamid Karzai 64
Difference is not a threat but a source of strength John Hume 82
Indigenous peoples and development Ole Henrik Magga 91
BOXES
2.1 Two aspects of cultural exclusion 27
2.2 Defining cultural rights lags behind defining civil, political, economic and social rights—why? 28
2.3 Measuring cultural liberty 31
2.4 The human development index: capturing inequalities across groups 36
2.5 Cultural policies—protecting cultural heritage and promoting cultural liberty 38
2.6 Inequalities between groups can fuel conflict and tension 41
2.7 Solomon Islands’ ethnic difference not the cause of conflict 42
3.1 A rough guide to federalism 50
3.2 The challenge of federalism: Nigeria’s troubled political trajectory and prospects 52
3.3 Proportional representation or winner takes all? New Zealand makes a switch 55
3.4 The many forms of secular and non-secular states and their effects on religious freedom 56
3.5 Hindu and Muslim personal law: the ongoing debate over a uniform civil code 57
3.6 Access to justice and cultural recognition in Guatemala 59
3.7 Multilingual education in Papua New Guinea 61
3.8 How many languages are there in Africa? 85% of Africans speak 15 core languages 63
3.9 Land rights in the Philippines 68
3.10 Experiences with affirmative action in Malaysia and South Africa 70
4.1 Leadership, ideological manipulation and recruiting supporters 77
4.2 Central Asia—the danger in restricting political and cultural liberties 78
4.3 Egypt—distinguishing between moderates and extremists 80
4.4 Algeria—discontent, democraticization and violence 81
4.5 United States—targeting intolerance and hatred 83
5.1 Culture—paradigm shift in anthropology 89
5.2 Sources of global ethics 90
5.3 Private companies and indigenous people can work together for development 94
5.4 Using intellectual property rights to protect traditional knowledge 95
5.5 The debate on cultural goods and the Multilateral Agreement on Investments fiasco 96
5.6 France’s successful support of domestic cultural industries 99
5.7 The headscarf dilemma in France 101
5.8 Temporary contracts—welcoming workers but not people does not work 103
5.9 How Berlin promotes respect for cultural difference 104
TABLES
2.1 Political representation of ethnic minorities in selected OECD parliaments 35
2.2 Integrating multicultural policies into human development strategies 37
xii
3.1 Indicators of internal output and costs of conventional and bilingual schools in Burkina Faso 62
4.1 Casualties resulting from sectarian violence in Pakistan, 1989–2003 75
5.1 Indigenous population in Latin America 92
5.2 Policy choices for the promotion of the domestic film and audiovisual industry—market and industry size matter 98
5.3 Top 10 cities by share of foreign born population, 2000/01 99
FIGURES
2.1 Most countries are culturally diverse 28
2.2 Indigenous people can expect a shorter life 29
2.3 Europe’s non-European migrant population has increased significantly . . . and migrants are
coming from more places 30
2.4 Many lack access to primary education in their mother tongue 34
2.5 National holidays are important ways to recognize—or ignore—cultural identities 35
3.1 Indigenous people are more likely than non-indigenous people to be poor in Latin America 67
3.2 Non-whites benefit less than whites from public health spending in South Africa 67
3.3 Group inequalities have declined in Malaysia, but personal inequalities have not 71
3.4 The record of affirmative action in the United States is mixed 71
4.1 Movements for cultural domination—not the same as all fundamentalist or all violent movements 73
4.2 Some European extreme right parties have won steadily increasing vote shares 74
4.3 Democratic participation can expose the fringe appeal of extreme right parties 82
5.1 Top-grossing films of all time at the international (non-US) box office were US films, April 2004 97
5.2 Unprecedented growth in international migration to Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand, but
refugees remain a small proportion, 1990–2000 100
5.3 More and more governments (rich and poor) want to control immigration, 1976–2001 100
MAPS
2.1 Guatemala exhibits substantial overlap between linguistic communities and social exclusion 37
5.1 Much extractive and infrastructural activity in developing countries is in areas where indigenous people live 92
FEATURES
2.1 The Minorities at Risk data set—quantifying cultural exclusion 32
Figure 1 Discrimination and disadvantage of culturally identified groups can be cultural, political and economic—
with considerable overlap 32
Figure 2 Political and economic exclusion have different causes 32
3.1 State unity or ethnocultural identity? Not an inevitable choice 48
Figure 1 Multiple and complementary identities 48
Figure 2 Trust, support and identification: poor and diverse countries can do well with multicultural policies 49
5.1 What’s new about globalization’s implications for identity politics? 86
Table 1 Top 10 countries by share of migrant population, 2000 87
Figure 1 Rapid increases in investments in extractive industries in developing countries, 1988–97 86
Figure 2 Fewer domestic films, more US films: evolving film attendance, 1984–2001 87
Statistical feature 1 The state of human development 127
Table 1 HDI, HPI-1, HPI-2, GDI—same components, different measurements 127
Table 2 Eliminating poverty: massive deprivation remains, 2000 129
xiii
Table 3 Progress and setbacks: child mortality 132
Table 4 Progress and setbacks: primary education 132
Table 5 Progress and setbacks: income poverty 132
Table 6 Countries experiencing a drop in the human development index, 1980s and 1990s 132
Figure 1 Same HDI, different income 128
Figure 2 Same income, different HDI 128
Figure 3 Not enough progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 130
Figure 4 Timeline: when will the Millennium Development Goals be achieved if progress does not accelerate? 133
Figure 5 Global disparities in HDI 134
Figure 6 Top and high priority countries 134
Index to Millennium Development Goal indicators in the indicator tables 135
Statistical feature 2 Note to table 1: About this year’s human development index 137
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS
MONITORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: ENLARGING PEOPLE’S CHOICES. . .
1 Human development index 139
2 Human development index trends 143
3 Human and income poverty: developing countries 147
4 Human and income poverty: OECD, Central & Eastern Europe & CIS 150
. . . TO LEAD A LONG AND HEALTHY LIFE. . .
5 Demographic trends 152
6 Commitment to health: resources, access and services 156
7 Water, sanitation and nutritional status 160
8 Leading global health crises and risks 164
9 Survival: progress and setbacks 168
. . . TO ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE . . .
10 Commitment to education: public spending 172
11 Literacy and enrolment 176
12 Technology: diffusion and creation 180
. . . TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE RESOURCES NEEDED FOR A DECENT STANDARD OF LIVING. . .
13 Economic performance 184
14 Inequality in income or consumption 188
15 Structure of trade 192
16 Rich country responsibilities: aid 196
17 Rich country responsibilities: debt relief and trade 197
18 Flows of aid, private capital and debt 198
19 Priorities in public spending 202
20 Unemployment in OECD countries 206
. . . WHILE PRESERVING IT FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS . . .
21 Energy and the environment 207
xiv
. . . PROTECTING PERSONAL SECURITY . . .
22 Refugees and armaments 211
23 Victims of crime 215
. . . AND ACHIEVING EQUALITY FOR ALL WOMEN AND MEN
24 Gender-related development index 217
25 Gender empowerment measure 221
26 Gender inequality in education 225
27 Gender inequality in economic activity 229
28 Gender, work burden and time allocation 233
29 Women’s political participation 234
HUMAN AND LABOUR RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS
30 Status of major international human rights instruments 238
31 Status of fundamental labour rights conventions 242
32 Human development indices: a regional perspective 246
33 Basic indicators for other UN member countries 250
Note on statistics in the Human Development Report 251
Technical notes
1 Calculating the human development indices 258
2 Identifying top priority and high priority countries for the Millennium Development Goals 265
Definitions of statistical terms 268
Statistical references 277
Classification of countries 279

Soggetto

Vita indipendente, inclusione nella comunità

Organizzazione che ha prodotto il documento

Nazioni Unite

Ultimo aggiornamento

1/4/2010