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Promoting the development of infants and young children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

WHO (1996)

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Other Documents (Article, presentation, toolkit, code of practice, …)


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Abstract / Indice dei contenuti


What are spina bifida and hydrocephalus?

What is spina bifida? 1
How does the spina bifida occur? 1
What can be done to prevent spina bifida? 1
Are there different types of spina bifida? 2
How does spina bifida affect the child? 2
What is spina bifida occulta? 3
What is hydrocephalus? 4
What are the signs of hydrocephalus? 5
What are the causes of hydrocephalus? 5
How is hydrocephalus treated? 6
Can problems occur with shunts? 6
What are the warning signs of shunt problems? 7

What can happen as a result of spina bifida?

Difficulties with movement 8
Problems with bones 10
Lack of feeling in skin 12
Poor bladder and bowel control 13

What can happen as a result of hydrocephalus?

Difficulty with learning 15
Difficulty with eyesight 15
Fits 15

Promoting development and movement

Assessment 16
Assessment form for children with spina bifida 21
Working effectively with child and his family 23
Treatment of contractures and deformities 24
Management of pressure sores 29
Normal development 32
Development charts 33

Encouraging normal development
- Head and body control 36
- Sitting 40
- Moving from place to place 42
- Using hands and playing 48
- Communication 51

Equipment and aids for mobility 52
Self care skills 58
Lifting 62
Adapting the home 63
School issues 64

The older child with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

Social activities 70
Work 70
Sexual function 70

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